翻訳の泉 翻訳に役立つ情報や翻訳の知識

第29回 前置詞の話 その5

今回は through, over, above, among など残りの基本前置詞についてお話をします。


through の基本義は「通って、貫通して、貫いて」です。トンネルを考えると、through を使って、汽車がトンネルを通るという言い方も、山を貫いてトンネルを通すという言い方もできます。貫通に限らず経由の意味も表します。「通じて、介して、経て、経由して」と訳せます。なお、pass, flow などの動詞の後では「(中)を」と訳さなければなりません。A through B が A to B と同じく「A から(ないし)B(まで)」の意味であることは前にお話ししました。


Therefore we must hold it to be beyond dispute that among exogamous races the first system of kinship was that which recognized blood-ties through mothers only.


U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces, in close cooperation, will take action through their respective command-and-control channels.

さらに、「よって」の意味でも使われます。そもそも through はドイツ語の durch と同源語です。


Every person may sue for redress as provided by law from the State or a public entity, in case he has suffered damage through illegal act of any public official.

by way of は、「経由して」が基本義ですが、byと同じ「によって」、目的を表す「ために」「として」などの意味もあります。via も「経由して」の意味です。なお、via は名詞として、集積回路で via hole と同じ意味で使われます。


Dr. Barker's work traced the intricate cycle of events by which the robin's fate is linked to the elm trees by way of the earthworms.


Another path to cancer may be by way of the chromosomes.


And by way of punishment for denying God and the resurrection of the dead, the descendants of Esau were cut off from the world.


But these reflections belong properly to tactics, and are only introduced here by way of example for the sake of greater clearness.


On his next round Bourke stepped in and repeated the order. Calahan felt that the jest had gone too far, and by way of protest knocked Bourke down.


over の意味は高飛びのバーを考えると理解できます。バーを飛び越える動作、バーの向こう側の位置、バーの真上にいる状態などを考えて下さい。across が水平に越えるのに対して over は上から越えるのです。位置を表す場合は、一般に「の上に」「を覆って」などと訳します。


To activate a link, just move the mouse over it and click the left button.

over はまた more than 「を越える」の意味を表し、それから転じて、支配や優越を表します。「に勝る」「に対して」と訳せます。


This (Archie Internet Archives) database, already available from a number of service providers across the Internet, currently contains the names of over 2,100,000 files at over 1,000 anonymous FTP archive sites.


Adding a fan improves the cooling process over convection and radiation alone by up to tenfold.


The present invention provides significant advantages over prior art solutions.


The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches.



The (Iguacu National) park shares with Iguazu National Park in Argentina one of the world's largest and most impressive waterfalls, extending over some 2,700 metres in length.


Responsible public health officials pointed out that the biological effects of chemicals are cumulative over long periods of time, and that the hazard to the individual may depend on the sum of the exposures received throughout his lifetime.


This pre-emulsified mixture was placed in an additional funnel attached to a reaction vessel equipped with an air stirrer, nitrogen inlet and a heating mantle. It was added over a period of 100 minutes with the temperature maintained at a 188-193°F.
空気攪拌機と窒素注入口と加熱用マントルを装備した反応容器に取り付けた追加の漏斗に、予め乳化させた混合物を入れた。温度を188〜193°F に保ち、100分かけてにわたって)これを添加した。

over も across や through と同様に「全体にわたって」の意味を表すことができます。all over や throughout はその強調形です。また、through などと同じく経由の意味でも使われます。


Computers within a campus often communicate over a local area network.


by sending messages via link adapter 12 over fiber link 14 through a switching system 16.


over の反対語が under ですが、"下をくぐり抜ける"という意味で使われることは余りありません。位置の他に、従属や条件も表します。


All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic, or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status, or family origin.


All people shall be obligated to have all boys and girls under their protection receive ordinary education as provided for by law.


Confession made under compulsion, torture, or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention shall not be admitted in evidence.


The rights and obligations under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States of America and Japan (the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty) and its related arrangements, as well as the fundamental framework of the U.S.-Japan alliance, will remain unchanged.

under + 動詞派生名詞は、受身の進行形を表します。

under construction 工事中
sample under test 被験サンプル


above は over と違って真上でなくてもかまいません。higher than と同じ意味と見なすこともできます。


One of the last groups of mountain gorillas lives between 2,100 and 2,400 metres above sea-level.
マウンテン・ゴリラの最後の群の1つは、海抜2100 mから2400 mの間に生息している。


Mount Nimba rises above the surrounding savannah.


Rising above the modern lower town, the Alhambra and the Albayzin placed on two adjacent hills, form the medieval part of Granada.


Then by careful measurements of their respiration, it was found that the fermentation rate was markedly above normal.

below は above の反対語であり、beneath は文語で under, below の代わりに使われます。


The men who profit and make their living by the depravity and the awful misery of other human beings stand far below any ordinary criminals, and no measures taken against them can be too severe.


Most of it still remains unexcavated beneath fields, and as such it constitutes the greatest archaeological reserve of its kind.


beyond は範囲を「越える」意味で、特に問題はありません。


No privilege shall accompany any award of honor, decoration, or any distinction, nor shall any such award be valid beyond the lifetime of the individual who now holds or hereafter may receive it.


The list of defects linked to chromosome disturbances has grown with surprising speed since the opening of this territory, hitherto beyond the boundaries of medical research.

opposite to

opposite, opposite to, in opposition to は、位置を表す場合、「と反対側の」の他に、「と向かい合って、と対向して」の意味があります。形容詞の場合も同じです。また opposite ends, opposite sides となると「両端」「両側」の意味になります。


The diameter of the valve stem from the end opposite to the valve element down to the O-ring is substantially no greater than the inside diameter of the O-ring.


This part of the floating conductive layer is situated opposite to the control electrode, the conductive layer and the control electrode being separated from each other by the thin insulating layer.




A notary cannot notarize any signature without that person personally appearing before the notary.


Such applicants must be represented in the regional phase before the EPO as designated Office by a professional representative whose name appears on the EPO list of representatives.


All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law.

after も時間以外に「を追って」「を求めて」「に因んで」の意味を表すことは御存知ですね。prior to 「に先立って」と following 「に続いて」は before, after と同じく「前」「後」と訳してかまいません。


between は「(二者)の間」で意味も訳し方も問題ありませんが、between A and B の訳し方について一言述べておきます。標準の訳し方は「AとBの間」であり、"AおよびBの間"や"A とB間"と訳すのは変です。Bの部分が長い場合はAとBの対比をはっきりさせるため、「Aと Bとの間」と訳します。between As は" Aの間"と訳すと同種の複数のものの間という意味がはっきり出せませんので、「A間、A相互間、A同士の間」などと訳します。さらに、difference between A and B や relationship between A and B の場合は、"間"の訳も不要で、「AとBの差(関係)」だけで十分です。


They found a strong positive correlation between temperature changes and changes in carbon dioxide and methane; this has contributed empirical evidence of the magnitude of climatic feedback between increasing levels of greenhouse gases and temperature.


among は「(多者)の間」の他に「のうちの」の意味があり、one of, some of の意味でよく使われます。


Among the most important and versatile of the hundreds of commercial plastics is polyethylene.


Among naturally occurring polymers are proteins, starches, cellulose, and latex.


The Augustusburg Castle - sumptuous residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne - and the Falkenlust hunting lodge - a small rural folly - are among the first illustrations of rococo architecture in 18th century Germany.

among others は「とりわけ、中でも、就中」と訳されますが、among other 〜 は意味は分かっても訳し方に苦労されているようです。inter alia はそのラテン語形です。


(Before bidding farewell to our Kashmiri Sanskrit writers, we must make mention of the poets from whose works can be gleaned some useful information. The most important among them is Kshemendra, the well-known historian, whose books, composed in the second and third quarter of the eleventh century, form important landmarks in several fields of Indian literature.) In the Samayamatrika, (one of his most original poems, which is intended to describe the snares of courtesans,) he gives us, among other stories, an amusing account of the wanderings of his chief heroine, Kankali, through the length and breadth of Kashmir.


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