翻訳の泉 翻訳に役立つ情報や翻訳の知識

第26回 前置詞の話 その2

今回は for と with のお話をします。誰しも翻訳を始めるまでは英文和訳は易しいと思っています。そして始めてから暫く経ってその難しさがわかってきた頃、for と with は難しいと言います。

目的・利益の for

for の基本的な意味は目的ですが、これは難しくありません。訳し方としては、いつも「のために(の)」と訳すのではなく、「〜用の」「〜向けの」と訳すとぴったりのことがあります。なお、第3回でお話ししたように、for の後に動詞派生名詞がくる場合に動詞構文で訳すことも忘れないで下さい。


Further, most of the metals used as contact electrodes for OLEDs (organic light emitting devices) are susceptible to corrosion in air or other oxygen containing environments.
さらに、OLED (有機発光素子)用の接触電極として使用される金属の大部分は、空気またはその他の酸素含有環境で腐食を受けやすい。


The injection moulding machine can be used to produce commercial quality and quantities of products for small enterprise ventures.


For your information a translation of the claims of the patent is enclosed.



The court of appeals denied the President's request for a rehearing.


From the dawn of the postwar era the conservatives had to reconcile their objectives for rapid, often wrenching economic growth with the tasks of maintaining social stability and a strong electoral base.


Although the search must be continued for therapeutic measures to relieve and to cure those who have already become victims of cancer, it is a disservice to humanity to hold out the hope that the solution will come suddenly, in a single master stroke.

目的を表す前置詞句には、for the purpose of、for the sake of、in the interest of などがあります。


Frequently air is blown across the disk drive for heat dissipation purposes.


The various items are shown spaced apart in FIG. 3. for the sake of clarity.


Such techniques are well known and, therefore, will not be described in any detail in the interest of simplicity and the avoidance of redundancy.


For the purpose of this application, the terms "first primer region" and "second primer region" refer to the regions on the nucleic acid sequence that are complementary to the first and second primers.


対象・関連の for

これは「に対して」「にとって」「に関して」「について」などと訳すことができます。文頭にくる場合は、「については」の他、「〜では」「の場合」と訳すこともできます。for が難しいのはこのケースのようです。


Certain chemicals, again reminding us of radiation products like Strontium 90, have a peculiar affinity for the bone marrow.


The growing exposure of the population to radiation from various sources plus the many contacts with a host of chemicals suggest a grave new problem for the modern world.

check, test など直接語の他に for を取る動詞がありますが、訳し方に注意が必要です。


A processor does not automatically or periodically check the local communication area or the global communication segment for messages.


The six integrants were tested for expression of the IGF fusion protein after induction with isopropyl--thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG).


Although chemical manufacturers are required by law to test their materials for toxicity, they are not required to make the tests that would reliably demonstrate genetic effect, and they do not do so.


for each は「各〜について」と訳すのが普通ですが、「(各)ごとに」と訳せる場合があります。


However, the probability that an atom will absorb a photon of polarized light is different for each of the ground-state sublevels.


For each man a poison drifting out of sky carried a death sentence. For one, it was radiation-poisoned ash; for the other, chemical dust.

for a given も一般には「所与の〜について」と訳しますが、「〜が与えられた場合」と訳せることがあります。


In this way, for a given speed of rotation of the shaft 5, the shaft 8 rotates at different speeds according to which of the pinions 10, 15, 16 or 17 is coupled to it by means of the sliding dog 18 or 19.

交換・代償の for

交換・代償の for は exchange, compensate, pay などの動詞と一緒に使われます。その他、期間、行先、賛成などを表す for は、余り問題はないと思います。


In the case of Japanese labor unions, organized workers exchanged their market power for public employment and welfare programs, state recognition of a nationalwide collective bargaining process, and participation in public-policy forums.


Confusion, delusions, loss of memory, mania - a heavy price to pay for the temporary destruction of a few insects, but a price that will continue to be exacted as long as we insist upon using chemicals that strike directly at the nervous system.

代償を表す前置詞句には、at the cost (price) of 「を代償として」「という代価を払って」、at the sacrifice (penalty, handicap) of 「を犠牲にして」「という犠牲を払って」があります。


Here are two clips we've prepared for your web viewing pleasure. They are compressed for faster delivery- at the sacrifice of some video quality.


This 1/f noise could be significantly reduced with an incandescent source, but at the cost of much higher power consumption and correspondingly worse thermal drift problems.


At the infra-red wavelengths required, avalanche photodiodes can be persuaded to detect single photons, but at the penalty of a high noise and hence a high error rate.

相手・共同の with

相手を表す with は意味も訳し方も簡単です。ただし、react, compare などwithを取る動詞と with が離れている場合は注意して下さい。こうしたある前置詞とペアで使用される動詞が使われるときは、後にその前置詞がくることを予想しながら読み進みます。


The acid dyes of the formula (I) can be prepared by reacting the reactive dye of the formula (II) (  式  略  )(II) in which M and n are as already defined and X is a halogen atom, with a compound of the formula (III) .
式(I)の酸性染料は、式(II)で表され、  (  式  略  )  (II)
上式で、Mと n はすでに定義したとおりであり、Xはハロゲン原子である反応性染料を、式(III)の化合物と反応させることによって調製することができる。

なお、以下のような場合は、with を"と"とだけ訳すのは舌足らずで、「との間で」と訳すべきです。


Such systems enable end-users to initiate and complete short business transactions via a terminal network with, for example, a bank, to make payments into or out of a bank account or simply to make an enquiry as to the balance.

along with, together with 「と共に」「と一緒に」は相手を表すことを強調した表現です。


On a summer day a fine-meshed tow net drawn behind a boat will collect, along with the other drifting plant and animal life that make up the plankton, the infinite small, fragile-as-glass larvae of oysters and clams.

in combination with や combined with は、「と組み合わせて」「と共に」の他、性質を表す表現などでは「とあいまって」と訳すとぴったりの場合があります。


PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene - Teflon) added singularly or in combination with the silicone oil, at percentages from 5 to 20%, can greatly expand the range of applications where a particular polymer might be used.


Their (epoxies) excellent electrical properties, in combination with high mechanical strength, qualify them for electrostructural applications.


There is, therefore, need for an optical crossbar switch which combines the speed of optical processing techniques with the small dimensions typical of microelectronic technology.

具有の with

having の意味の with は「を伴う」「を有する」「をもつ」「を備える」などと訳すことができます。


Although a P-type substrate with the corresponding polarity type regions is shown in Fig. 2, an N-type substrate, or an N-type substrate with a P-region created by doping, etc. with corresponding regions and modifications to the integrated circuit may also be used.


An I/O ESD device, or similar device, may also be formed from an N-type substrate, with appropriate connections and modifications for proper performance.
入出力 ESD デバイスまたは類似のデバイスも、N型基板から、当該の性能に必要な適当な接続および修正を加えて形成することができる。


For the next fifteen years Japanese politics was polarized into "two major ideological camps" with little room for compromise.


They (chemicals used as pesticides) thus appear as agents potentially capable of locking the whole process of energy production and depriving the cells of utilizable oxygen. This is an injury with most disastrous consequences, only a few of which can be mentioned here.

随伴の with

同時を表す with は、「と共に」「に従って」などと訳します。


As the volume of insulating fluid varies with temperature, and in fact increases as the temperature rises, it is necessary, in order to avoid excessively high pressures which could lead to leaks of insulating fluid and even to the destruction of the receptacle, that this increase in volume of the insulating fluid be compensated.


With the advent of man the situation began to change, for man, alone of all forms of life, can create cancer-producing substances.


With the dawn of the industrial era the world became a place of continuous, ever-accelerating change.

手段の with

using の意味の with は正確には「で」「を用いて」「を使って」と訳します。もちろんbyとの違いを認識した上でなら「よって」を使ってもかまいません。決まった動詞とペアで使われる with は"によって"ではなく「で」で受けます。


The server-side intercept module removes from the server cache the existing data, and then updates the server cache with the newer information.

手段の意味を表す複合前置詞には、by means of や with the aid of 「を用いて」があります。

without は with の否定です。訳し方としては「なしで」、動詞派生語を伴う場合は「〜することなしに」の他、「することなく」「〜せずに」などと訳せます。


However, a problem with stress relief vias is that they take up valuable "chip real estate" on the design surface without providing any electronic function.

まれには within の反対語、outside の意味でも使われます。


The corporation may have such principal and other business offices, either within or without the State of Wisconsin, as the Board of Directors may designate or as the business of the corporation may require from time to time.

場合の with

以上の with は"と"または"で"に近い意味ですが、以下の用法は"では"に相当するものです。


With a forward gain of between 150 and 200 in the main supply, such an arrangement can control temperature to better than 0.1°C over long periods.
主電源の順方向利得が150〜200の場合、この装置は温度を長期にわたって0.1℃ よりよく(細かく)制御することができる。」


By 1960, every species of wild mammal known to inhabit the area had suffered losses. It was even worse with the birds.

with で難しいのは付帯状況構文です。これは具有の with から発達したものと考えられますが、詳しくは第4回をご覧下さい。


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