翻訳の泉 翻訳に役立つ情報や翻訳の知識

第21回 副詞の話−続き



otherwise は、主に3つの用法があります。まず、if not 「そうでない場合」の意味で使われます。普通は文頭または副文の先頭に来ます。


Sealed lead-acid batteries must be stored in the charged state. Otherwise, internal shorts may form in the battery during recharging.


Man still lived in his original habitat, in tropical or subtropical forests, and was partially at least a tree-dweller, for otherwise his survival among huge beasts of prey cannot be explained.

次に、あえて言えば「普通なら」という意味を表します。つまり"この方法を使用しない場合には"ということです。would と一緒に使われる場合は、まずこの意味です。


These patterns were required to eliminate unwanted electric fields which would otherwise be generated in regions where electrical input and output leads were present on the lower plate.


This high positional resolution often eliminates gearboxes or other mechanical reducers otherwise needed to place wire bonds or test probes on exposed IC wafers.

第三に、in another way 「その他の方法で」という意味でもよく使われます。他にも少しニュアンスの異なる様々な使い方があります。


With two-piece connectors, the connector jack is soldered or otherwise fastened to the circuit-board edge and mates with a receptacle.


I believe when a witness is under oath in a civil case,or otherwise under oath, the witness should do everything possible to answer the questions truthfully.


All parts and percentages recited are by weight unless otherwise specified.


Installation and reset techniques are otherwise the same as ordinary circuit breakers.

また or の強調形として使われることもあるようです。


The status signal from the input packet buffer indicates whether the input packet buffer is full or nearly full, is empty, or is otherwise operating normally (i.e. neither full nor empty).


the pharmaceutically acceptable bio-precursors (otherwise known as pro-drugs) of the compounds

respectively は何組かの要素がそれぞれ対応することを示します。次の例で言えば、アンモニウム塩が酸に対応し、金属アミドが塩基に対応しています。一般に「それぞれ」と訳しますが、その位置は第2の組の前に置きます。各要素の名前が具体的に出てこない場合もあります。


Therefore, in ammonia, ammonium salts and metal amides function as acids and bases respectively.


Thus, the cDNA products arising from primer hybridization to HLA mRNA and extension therefrom will contain no more than 13 and 14 nucleotides, respectively, in the ddATP and ddCTP terminated runs.
すなわち、HLA mRNAへのプライマーのハイブリッド化およびその延長によって生じるcDNA産生物は、ddATPおよびddCTPを末端とするラン中にそれぞれ13個以下および14個以下のヌクレオチドを含むことになる。

形容詞形の respective もよくでてきます。「それぞれの」と訳されることが多いようですが、可能なら副詞形に直して「それぞれ」とした方が意味がはっきりします。その際、対応関係が正しく訳出できているか確認する必要があります。


The maritime cities of Greece sent their respective quotas of men and ships to the celebrated harbor of Piraeus.


Each storage area includes a state variable which is modified responsive to one of said promotional units communicating with said respective one of said cards.

A and B, respectively の形が普通ですが、接続詞を使わず、respectively または respective を名詞の間にもってきて、接続詞の働きも兼ねさせたり、さらにはその働きの方が主になることもあります。第14回で or の代わりに respectively が使われることがあると言ったのは、実はこういうことです。


Said at least one, respectively said at least one other, queue request message includes said at least one, respectively said at least one other status parameter,


This layer of phosphorous 21 and this layer of boron 22 are applied to the corresponding surface of the layer of pyrite20, in such a way that a bond within the sense of a dopant is produced between the semiconductor base material and the phosphorous(P) respective the boron(B).


Any further notifications on procedural matters will be addressed to the applicant, respectively his European representative, if the appointment of the latter has been communicated to the EPO in the due time.


said medium access controller further includes extraction means adapted to extract, from at least one corresponding upstream queue request message, and respectively from at least one other upstream queue request message, said at least one parameter of said parameter set associated to said corresponding storage queue, and respectively said at least one other parameter of said at least one other parameter set associated to said at least one other storage queue, and to deliver said at least one parameter, and respectively said at least one other parameter as output signals of said extraction means.

正確を期するためでしょうか、次のような念の入った表現もありました。この場合、and alternatively or の代わりに使われています


The control circuit initiates a record operation to a first group of memory cells and alternatively to a second group of memory cells in the storage array, responsive to the first input being asserted and alternatively to the second input being asserted, respectively, and to the third input being at a first state.

and so on and so forth は文を受けている場合、「以下同様である」と訳すとうまくいきます。名詞を受ける場合は「など、等々」です。


The first bit is analyzed. If it is found at 1, the following bits are taken as valid data bits. If it is found at 0, the following bit is analyzed. If it is found at 1, the following bits are taken as valid data bits, if not the following bit is analyzed, and so on . . .


The previously described problems associated therewith (i.e., excessive location reporting, location reports received out-of-sequence, and so on) adversely affect mobile communications.

and vice versa は「逆も同様である」と訳すとうまくいきます。or vice versa は「またはその逆に」です。


As can be appreciated from the previous description of the pumping operation, when the piston is moving downwardly the check valve must move upwardly and vice versa.



when an electrical potential is established across the conducting films and the liquid crystal layer, the device will change from a light transmitting to opaque medium, or vice versa, depending upon the orientation of the two polarizers.




The synchronization loop comprises, downstream of the delay means, a semi-reflecting plate.


形容詞や名詞を使って副詞の意味を表すことができます。in an appreciable way は"評価可能な方法で"ではなく、appreciably と同じで「目立つように、はっきり」の意味です。in a timely fashion は timely 「適時に」と同じです。way の代わりに manner、mode、fashion もよく使われます。まるでファッション界の話みたいですが。わざわざ言い換えないで副詞を使えば良さそうなものですが、この形を使うとより細かい修飾が可能になります。もちろん関係節を受けることもできます。この way などは、訳出すると「様態、様式、方式、やり方」となりますが、修飾部分が長い場合は「〜な形で」とすると、ニュアンスも近く自然な形になります。


Based on the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and its related arrangements, Japan will, in case of need, provide additional facilities and areas in a timely and appropriate manner, and ensure the temporary use by U.S. Forces of Self-Defense Forces facilities and civilian airports and ports.


In conducting bilateral operations, U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will employ their respective defense capabilities in a coordinated, timely, and effective manner.


All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.


However, since the objective of the Guidelines and programs under the Guidelines is to establish an effective framework for bilateral cooperation, the two Governments are expected to reflect in an appropriate way the results of these efforts, based on their own judgments, in their specific policies and measures.


Like all other chlorinated hydrocarbons, its (chlordane) deposits build up in the body in cumulative fashion.

basis を使った表現もよく使われます。on a line basis 「1行ずつ」のような形です。on a per bit basis 「ビットごとに」、on a day-by-day basis 「毎日」のような形も使われます。


States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests.


The rent of land, on a money basis, varies from six to ten dollars an acre per year, while the same land can be bought in large quantities all the way from fifteen to thirty dollars per acre.

接尾辞 wise の付いた副詞もあります。この形はまだ生きており、いろいろな名詞に付くことができます。この -wise は語源的には way と同じであり、otherwise や likewise もその仲間です。この形は形容詞として使われることもあります。

clockwise 時計回りに、imagewise イメージ通りに、dropwise 1滴ずつ、stepwise 1段ずつ


Flat cables are rather stiff transversely but quite flexible lengthwise.


The pole pattern is produced by three-phase windings in alternate clockwise and counterclock-wise directions around the tube.

in general など前置詞+名詞または形容詞で副詞の働きをするものもあり、意味は同じですが文中の位置が異なることがあります。例えば particularly は修飾する語の前に来ますが、in particular は後に来ます。


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