翻訳の泉 翻訳に役立つ情報や翻訳の知識

第28回 前置詞の話 その4

今回は in, on, against などの前置詞の注意すべき用法と訳し方についてお話しします。


in は一般に時間や場所について使用され、「〜中に(の)」と訳すことができます。場所の場合は「〜内に」とも訳します。時間の場合は、ある期間を指しますが、場合によっては「の際に」「の時に」、文頭では「に際しては」「に当たっては」と訳せることもあります。


In setting a tolerance level the Food and Drug Administration reviews tests of the poison on laboratory animals and then establishes a maximum level of contamination that is much less than required to produce symptoms in the test animal.


In operation a high output voltage is realized at the output terminal by turning on the upper transistor and turning off the lower transistor.

in は変化や違いを表す表現で対象の属性を示すのに用いられます。対象自体は of で表します。この in をよく"〜における"と訳す人がいますが、普通は「〜の」で充分です。動詞を受ける場合は「〜が」です。なお、一般に"における""において"を使いすぎる人がよくいますが、より簡単な表現が使える場合はそっちを使うべきです。


The change in the native vegetation of the planted part of the heath was most remarkable, more than is generally seen in passing from one quite different soil to another:


we must admit that something quite independently of any difference in physical conditions has caused so great a difference in number.


Just as cancer itself is a disease that wear s many guises, appearing in various forms that differ in their origin, in the course of their development, and in the factors that influence their growth or regression, so there must be a corresponding variety of causes.


Any change in the numerical proportions of some of the inhabitants, independently of the change of climate itself, would most seriously affect many of the others.

意味は"中"でも、in の訳し方に工夫を要するケースが沢山あります。


Many of these drives are available in enclosures meeting industry standard requirements.


Place in it a solution of 1-morpholino- cyclohexene (51 g) in dry dioxane (300 ml).
1−モルホリノシクロヘキセン(51 g)の乾燥ジオキサン(300 ml)溶液をそこに入れる。


The spray was a 25% DDT concentrate suspended in a solvent containing methylated naphthalenes.



At last the wave came. The letter 'S' had been successfully transmitted in Morse code from the window to a visible point, but Marconi wanted more.


Subpackets A1 through A4 are transmitted in a continuous sequence without intervening time, but a small intervening interval could separate the subpackets.


The perfluoroalkyl radicals contain oxygen and sulfur heteroatoms configured in ether, ester, ketone, and sulfonyl fluoride functional groups.

また in は単位を表すことができます。


According to industry practice, the size of a surface mount component is generally expressed as a number "XXYY" with XX and YY being the length and width, respectively, in hundreds of an inch

in を含む次のような熟語は out of を含むものとは逆の意味になります。in phase 「同位相」、 in time 「適時に」、 in place 「定位置に」

into は結果を表すことがあります。変化を表す動詞を伴う場合はすぐわかりますが、そうでない場合は注意が必要です。


Warburg's ideas received confirmation in 1953 when other workers were able to turn normal cells into cancer cells merely by depriving them of oxygen intermittently over long periods.


"Assert" is used to refer to the rendering of a logic signal or register bit into its active, or logically true, state.


On the shores of the Mediterranean, Tipasa was an ancient Punic trading-post conquered by Rome and transformed into a strategic base for the conquest of the kingdoms of Mauritania.


As the only volcanically active subantarctic islands they "open a window into the earth", thus providing opportunities to observe ongoing geomorphic processes and glacial dynamics.


A portion of the beam polarized in the direction of the arrow is reflected into a second photodetector.

within は一般に「内」で訳しますが、「以内」「範囲内」とすべき場合もあります。inside は「内部、内側」、outside は「外部」「外側」です。


It will be appreciated that the extraction of IF inducer from plant tissues other than the seeds falls within the scope of the present invention.


We are currently reviewing members for the following channels only. If your primary audience falls within one of these categories, please tell us about yourself.


on, upon は一般に時間や場所について使用され、場所の場合は「〜上に」と訳すことができます。時間を表す場合は、動作の完了時を表し、as soon as と同じ意味とされています。また話題や作用の対象を表します。


Although medical opinion is divided on the question, much evidence exists to support the view that similar effects may occur in human tissues.

作用の対象を表す on, upon は「に対して」と訳します。


An instruction cannot commence execution until it has data to operate on. It may not have data to operate upon when a earlier instruction will update the data that a successive instruction will operate upon.


The delayed but lethal effect on the young birds follows from storage of dieldrin in the yolk of the egg, from which it is gradually assimilated during incubation and after hatching.

onto は「上に」で、off の反対です。


In some cases, these drives are fast enough to play applications directly without first reading data onto the hard drive.


at は時間や場所の一点を表します。それから転じて、aim などの動詞と共に狙いを表すのに用いられます。


Glass soot is deposited on the quartz plate using a hydrolysis burner which is maintained at a distance of 16 centimeters from the preform as the preform develops.
水解バーナを使い、それをプレフォームから16 cmの距離の所に保持して、水晶板上にガラスのすすを被着させる。


against は一般に「に対して」「に反して」と訳され、"反対""対抗""防止""違反"の意味でよく使われます。



At other times, when attempting to lean against a firm tree, one was startled by finding a mass of decayed matter ready to fall at the slightest touch.


A fine active man, placed the trunk of a tree against this vertical wall of rock, climbed up it, and then by the aid of crevices reached the summit.


One old woman with a little boy, four or five years old, ran into a boat, but there was nobody to row it out: the boat was consequently dashed against an anchor and cut in twain.



The signal strength from such neighboring cell sites are checked against the signal strength table.


The operations that may be executed in the memory are fairly simple, usually restricted to comparison of a stored data word against a given search pattern.

against の後にくるのは既定のもの、定数であり、変数の場合は with を使います。


Once again it is necessary to match up the ending selected against the root word given us by our electronic dictionary data base.

against は背景を示すのにも使用されます。


These (ostriches), when standing on any little eminence, and seen against the clear sky, presented a very noble appearance.


White massive clouds were piled up against a dark blue sky, and across them black ragged sheets of vapour were rapidly driven.


Another factor in the modern insect problem is one that must be viewed against a background of geologic and human history.


Against such a background, the future of the salmon fisheries may well depend on finding a substitute for drenching forests with DDT.


about は話題などを表すほか、回転の中心を表します。"を中心として"という訳し方もありますが、「の周りを(で)」の方が無難です。


When motor 19 turns sun gear 21, the engagement of the planet gears 32 with the rotationally fixed first ring gear 26 constrains the planet gears to rotate about their own axes 41 and also to orbit about the sun gear.


around は「の周りに」の他、それから転じて迂回、回避の意味を表すことがあります。


This difference value is used to implement the protocol described above and to route message data around the buffer when the buffer is empty and the desired path for the message is open.


The Bulletin is printed tabloid size, on 11x17-inch pages, much larger than most computer screens. However, you can get around this problem by using Acrobat Reader's zoom feature.
小誌は大部分のコンピュータ画面よりはるかに大きな一頁11×17インチ大のタブロイド版で印刷されていますが、Acrobat Readerのズーム機能を使えばこの問題を回避することができます。

along は帯状のものを縦断することを意味し、訳は「に沿って」だけで十分です。なお、along the road など立脚点がその内部にある場合と、along the river など外部にある場合があります。


across は along と縦横の関係にあって帯状のものを横断することを意味し、同様に across the river など立脚点が外部にある場合も across the swimming pool など内部にある場合も使えます。目の前に川があるとして、こちらの岸から向う岸への移動「を横切って」「を渡って」、こちらの岸から向う岸まで及ぶ範囲「を跨いで」、向う岸に所在「の向こう側に」の3つの意味を表します。「と交差して」の意味もあります。


The sheep were driven into a small, untreated blue-grass pasture across a gravel road from a field which had been treated with dieldrin spray on May 6.


A beam of electrons is directed at a screen that contains a quick-fading phosphor. The beam can be turned on and off very quickly, and it can be bent in two dimensions via magnetic fields. The beam is swept from left to right (from the user's point of view) across the screen.


To paint an image on the entire screen, the beam is swept across the top row; when it reaches the right edge, it is turned off, moved back to the left and down one row, and then swept across to the right again.


A common screen size is 1280 pixels across and 1024 pixels high on a 16'' or 19'' monitor.



Frequently air is blown across the disk drive for heat dissipation purposes.


The values of x and y depend on the reaction conditions and typically vary across the cross-section of the layer.



If the d.c. voltage of source S rises, the diode Z will conduct more current but a great voltage drop will occur across resistor R so that the voltage across zener diode Z remains constant.


For example, the disconnection of lead L1 or L2 destroys the integrity of the input circuit so that zener diode Z is incapable of conducting and producing an output voltage across leads L3 and L4.

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